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Tax Preparation

Are you overpaying on your taxes? Is a lack of understanding of proper tax planning leading to higher tax bills than necessary? Silver & Dackman, LLC understands that the right tax preparation provider is essential to the financial health of your family or business. Every tax return is unique, so we always work with you to understand your life and needs to prepare the most accurate return that we can. 

Tax Preparation

Are you overpaying on your taxes? Is a lack of understanding of proper tax planning leading to higher tax bills than necessary? Silver & Dackman, LLC understands that the right tax preparation provider is essential to the financial health of your family or business. Every tax return is unique, so we always work with you to understand your life and needs to prepare the most accurate return that we can.

Who We Work With

Our tax preparation services are ideal for a broad range of clients, from individuals filing separately with a single W-2 form to complex trust and corporate returns. We can prepare:

  • Corporate Tax Returns
  • Partnership Tax Returns
  • Trust Tax Returns
  • Individual Tax Returns
  • Personal Property Tax Returns
  • Sales Tax

Calculators

Interested in taking a look at one aspect of your finances? Below you will find a library of over 100 financial calculators that are easy to use. These calculators offer in-depth analysis for a broad range of financial scenarios to help you with your everyday needs or long-range planning.

Glossary

401(k)
A 401(k) account is an employer-provided account to an employee which consists of contributions to his/her retirement. Contributions to this plan will appear on pay stubs; and for income tax filing, withdrawals from 401(k) plans will appear on 1099-R forms.

403(b)
A 403(b) plan is another employer-provided, retirement plan that is actually an annuity with a tax shelter. Contributions to this plan will appear on pay stubs; and for income tax filing, rollovers and withdrawals will appear on 1099-R forms.

Account Balance
An account balance is the existing amount in an account whether it is a cash account, checking account, retirement account or another type of account. The account balance is always numerical.

Account Reconciliation
An account reconciliation means that you have calculated and determined that the income and payments from a particular account equal the account’s balance.

Accountant
An accountant is the chief staff member in a company or corporation responsible for reporting financial activity. Pertaining to financial matters, clerks and bookkeepers are subordinate to accountants.

Accounting
Accounting is the man-made science of keeping track of, recording and reporting financial transactions among and between other humans (currently) and their business entities. Accounting always involves the appropriate currency whether it is dollars, francs, Krugerrands, lira, pesos, pounds, etc.

Accounts Payable
Accounts payable are liability accounts that a company, corporation or partnership has. These are short-term accounts that usually require complete payments in one year or less.

Accounts Receivable
Accounts receivable are asset accounts that a company, corporation, partnership or other business entity has. These are usually short-term accounts from which business entities expect payments from other businesses, clients and customers.

Accrual Basis
The accrual basis is the sole other basis (Cash basis being the other basis.) for reporting income or expenses for a company, corporation, partnership or other, business entity. Using the accrual basis, income and/or expenses are reported when earned, not when received.

Accrued Expense
Accrued expense is an expense of which a company, corporation, or other business entity has assumed the obligation to pay but has not yet paid.

Accrued Revenue
Accrued revenue is the income/revenue that a company, corporation or other business entity has received the promise of payment from another business, client or customer, but has not actually received payment.

Accumulated Depreciation
Accumulated depreciation is the amount after the first year, first half-year or first quarter of depreciation that a business entity can deduct from income in order to recover the cost of a business asset over a period (usually several years) in which the asset decreases its value.

Active-Participant Status
Relating to businesses and financial concerns, the active-participant status refers to individuals who physically participate in the work of a company, corporation or other, business entity, or make decisions for a company, corporation or other, business entity.

Actuary
An actuary is a person who works for an insurance company. He/she calculates dividends and premiums and may also print and send tax-related statements to individuals who have insurance from that specific company.

Adjustable Rate Mortgage
Adjustable Rate Mortgages have variable interest rates. The interest rates often vary on a yearly basis taking into consideration the costs to the lender and other credit factors.

Adjusted Entry
An entry can be a numerical value or text on a bill, check, invoice, voucher or other financial statement. An adjustment (adjusted entry) was made to correct such an entry.

Adjusted Gross Income (AGI)
On United States income tax forms, adjusted gross income is a numerical amount that appears when all, income sources are deducted from all, eligible expenses. On Form 1040, this amount appears on Line 37 and 38.

Advance
For financial purposes, an advance is where an employee gets his/her wages or salary before the date that he or she usually receives it.

Agent
Relating to financial matters, an agent is the person who acts in the interest of another person, and who has broad or stipulated, specific fights when acting as the other person’s financial representative.

Aggressive Growth Fund
An Aggressive Growth Fund is “aggressive” using the financial methods it uses to get high capital gains for a mutual fund.

Allocation Formula
To allocate means to distribute or designate. An allocation formula can be the percentage amount of a dividend to allocate in a particular year, the percentage amount of tax to designate from a withdrawal of IRA funds, etc.

Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT)
For U.S. income tax purposes, Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) is an additional tax on certain income/expenses like accelerated depreciation, depletion, passive loss deductions, etc.

American Opportunity Tax Credit (Hope Credit)
U.S. Citizens filing U.S. income tax forms can “hope” to get the Hope Credit. Taxpayers who attended colleges in the freshman and sophomore years at least on a part-time basis, and had unreimbursed, eligible, education-related expenses can usually claim this credit.

Amortization
For financial purposes, amortization means to pay off periodically certain items that can appear on tax returns. Two common examples are a mortgage and bonds’ premiums.

Annual Meeting of Shareholders
Shareholders have “shares” (financial interest) in a company’s or corporation’s worth. An annual meeting of shareholders occurs once per year in which all shareholders may or may not attend in-person.

Annual Percentage Rate (APR)
The APR is a financial charge levied on credit cards and other loans on an annual basis.

Annual Report
An annual report is usually a business report created and distributed to executives and shareholders at the end of a business year. This report is very professional, accurate, and summarizes a company’s or corporation’s income, expenses and equity.

Annuitant
An annuitant receives the income from an annuity.

Annuity
An annuity is a source of retirement income in which an individual receives payments at regular intervals and/or yearly.

Annuity Certain
Such an annuity means that payments will continue to the beneficiary(s) of an individual’s estate even after the annuitant’s death.

Annuity Joint Life
Such an annuity will dispense funds until the first death among two or more annuitants.

Annuity Joint and Survivor
Two individuals can have such an annuity; and full payments continue as long as both individuals are alive. In the event of death of one of these individuals, payments continue at a pre-specified amount.

Annuity Modified Refund
Employees contribute their earnings to this annuity. After retirement, if such employees die before receiving all of their contributions, the balance (including interest) is distributed to their beneficiaries.

Annuity Payout Option
When retirees are eligible to receive payments from their annuity, they have the option of receiving all of their retirement money in a one-time total amount, or over a period of time (like monthly).

Application Fee
This is the fee that must be paid when an applicant submits an application. Such an application can be for employment, credit, passport creation, etc.

Appraisal
Individuals or groups of individuals who can assess the value of an item or service.

Appreciation
Financially speaking, an appreciation is the increase in value of an asset.

Articles of Incorporation (Certificate of Incorporation/Charter)
In the United States and Canada, this document declares the management rules by which a corporation will be created.

Articles of Organization
This document is similar to the Articles of Incorporation except that the exception that it refers to forming an LLC (limited liability company).

Asset
An asset is a company’s, corporation’s, individual’s, or other business entity’s property (intangible or intangible).

Asset Allocation
This can refer to an asset’s designation or distribution.

Asset Class
Referring to depreciation, an asset class can be one of these: 3-year property, 5-year property, 7-year property, 10-year property, 15-year property, 20-year property, 25-year property, residential property or non-residential property.

Assignment
Referring to business and/or tax purposes, an assignment is a property transfer which will be held in trust or to benefit creditors.

Assumed Name
An assumed name is a false name.

Authorized Shares or Stock
This is the maximum amount of stock shares that a corporation or company can legally issue.

Automatic Reinvestment
Automatic reinvestment of income can refer to automatically reinvesting dividends before the dividend recipients withdraw such dividends.

Bad Debts
On U.S. income tax forms, companies and proprietorships can create a liability account for bad debts, but they must have been using an accrual basis for reporting income. Other qualifications for declaring a bad debt are the debt’s description, debt’s, payment due date; debtor’s name, relationship between the business and debtor, efforts made to collect the debt, and why the debt was deemed worthless.

Balance
The balance is the numerical amount existing in a cash or credit account, or the amount that still must be paid in a liability account.

Balance Sheet
This is a financial form that summarizes a company’s, corporation’s, partnership’s, proprietorship’s or other business entity’s assets, liabilities and owner’s equity.

Balloon Mortgage
This is typically a short-term mortgage with regular payments and a final, larger (balloon) payment at the term’s end.

Bank Overdraft
A bank overdraft occurs when an individual or business entity writes a check for an amount which is more than the balance in their bank account.

Bank Reconciliation
This refers to reconciling (making certain that all entries [debits and credits, income and purchases] are correct) on a bank statement.

Bankrupt
An individual or business entity is bankrupt (adjective) when he/she/it can no longer meet his/her/its financial obligations.

Bankruptcy
This is the condition of being unable to meet financial obligations.

Basis
When referring to depreciation or capital gains, this is the monetary value of an item when it was purchased.

Basis Point
Often used in calculating interest rates, a basis point is one-hundredth of a percent.

Bear Market
This is a stock market condition in which securities and/or commodities are losing value at 20% or more from market high.

Beneficiary
A beneficiary is an individual who is designated to receive the monetary benefits from an insurance policy, dividends, retirement fund, etc. if and when the policyholder or account holder cannot or is unable to receive such monetary benefits.

Benefits Received
Benefits received is the amount of monetary benefits that an individual has received from a financial account.

Beta
Financially, beta determines an investment’s volatility.

Bill of Lading
A Bill of Lading is a document that a carrier gives to a shipper. This document lists the transport terms.

Blue-Chip Stock
This is stock (share in a company’s worth) that has proven high-investment value.

Bond
Financially, a bond is a certificate that declares the indebtedness of a public or private nature. These bond types usually earn interest.

Book Value
Financially, book value is the numerical amount of a business entity’s total assets minus its intangible assets and liabilities.

Book of Original Entry
Strictly speaking, financially, the first book in which an accounting entry was made can be Cash Receipts Journal, Cash Disbursements Journal, Sales Journal, etc.

Bookkeeping
This is the process of recording a business entity’s accounts and transactions.

Broker
Financially, a broker typically refers to a stockbroker who is a person who negotiates purchasing and selling stocks.

Budget
A budget is the monetary amount that an individual or business entity has designated that should not be exceeded when making purchases or paying liabilities.

Bull Market
This refers to a stock market condition in which commodities and securities are increasing in value.

Business Succession
This is a contingent plan for assignment of leadership positions in the event of unforeseen circumstances occurring to a business entity’s regular leadership.

Business Taxes
The taxes that a business may need to pay are sales taxes on purchases, property taxes and income taxes. These are all expenses and they can be prepaid.

Buy-Sell Agreement
This is a legally-binding agreement between the co-owners of a business entity which declares buying and selling arrangements relating to owners’ equity if an owner dies or leaves the business.

Buy-and-Hold
This is an investment strategy in which an investor buys stock with the intention of holding such stock for the long-term (more than 1 year).

Bylaws
These are a business entity’s rules to help its members govern themselves and regulate the business’ affairs.

CAPS
Many programs use this abbreviation. Financially, it likely refers to assist consumers with health insurance problems.

Cafeteria Employee Benefit Plan
This plan relates to accident and/or health insurance obtained through your employment. When the premiums from such plans are not included in your income, the IRS deems that you have not paid such premiums and you must include any benefits you receive in your income.

Canceled Check
When a bank pays the payee of a check, it stops further payment by cancelling the check (usually on the front) with a stamp.

Capital (or Equity)
The main definition of capital or equity is the owner’s interest and/or investment in a business.

Capital Asset
A capital asset is property that an assessee holds.

Capital Gain/Loss
A capital gain is when an individual or business entity receives more income from an asset’s or property’s sale than what they paid to acquire the asset or property. A capital loss is when an individual or business entity receives less than the amount they paid to purchase the asset or property when they sell the asset or property.

Capital Gains Distribution
This distribution occurs when mutual funds and real estate investment trusts pay or credit money to accounts.

Capital Gains Tax
This is a special tax that the U.S. Internal Revenue levies on the sale of collectibles, items held for investment, etc., whereby the seller had a capital gain.

Capital Loss
A capital loss occurs when a capital asset’s selling value is below its purchase price.

Capital Stock
This is the amount of stock that a business entity issues. Such stock can be common and/or preferred.

Cash Advance
This is cash that an individual or business entity receives before the time that such cash is usually distributed or paid.

Cash Basis
The cash basis is one of two accounting methods in which a business entity accounts for its cash income. Cash is recorded when actually received instead of when earned (accrual basis).

Cash Budget
This is the monetary cash amount that an individual or business entity has designated should not be exceeded when making purchases.

Cash Flow
This is the flowing in (income) and out (expenses and purchases) of a business’ cash.

Cash Management
These procedures refer to how a business entity collects, handles and uses its cash.

Cash Refund
A cash refund is often distributed when a consumer has purchased a defective item and returns such an item along with the sales receipt to the seller.

Cash Surrender Value
This term refers to the cash value of a life insurance policy when cancelled.

Casualty Loss
For income tax purposes, a casualty refers to the damage or destruction that a property suffers. If the person or business entity that owns a casualty receives from an insurance company less than the amount that he/she/it paid for the property, then it is a casualty loss.

Certificate of Authority
A Certificate of Authority certifies (declares) than an item or website is authentic and legitimate.

Certificate of Deposit
A certificate of deposit (CD) is a specific bond type that has a fixed interest rate that the owner can redeem without penalty when it matures.

Certified Public Account (CPA)
This individual has taken extensive, accounting courses; and the state has certified that he/she is qualified to perform and receive payment for most, if not all, accounting jobs.

Chapter 11
This is the bankruptcy option in which a debtor agrees to repay financial obligations at a reduced rate, and often over a period of time.

Chapter 7
This is the bankruptcy option in which a debtor is released from paying most debtors.

Check
In financial terms, this is a paper authorization/request for payment in a specific currency.

Check Register
This is an electronic or paper document that records checks disbursed or checks received.

Claim
A claim requests that the claimant has legitimate ownership rights to money, property, etc.

Claims Paying Ability Rating
Pertains to the risk of the ability of a borrower to pay back his/her loan; and the ability of an insurance company to pay its policyholders’ claims.

Close Corporation/Closely Held Corporation
This is a business entity that only has a limited number of shareholders. It is also a corporation which only occasionally publicly sells its stock.

Closing
Financially and account-related, this is the time when a business entity verifies the accuracy and records such accuracy of various accounts.

Closing Costs
Closing costs can refer to the expenses associated with selling an item (like real estate).

Cloud on Title
Cloud on Title would make an individual or business entity consider carefully or verify the ownership of property that has irregularities before purchasing such property.

Combined Financial Statement
A Combined Financial Statement declares the assets, liabilities and equities of two or more affiliated, business entities.

Commercial Loan
A commercial loan is a loan to a business entity that conducts business by buying and selling items.

Commercial Paper
This is a promissory note (IOU) that is unsecured by collateral, and that will become due in 270 days or less.

Commission
This is a fee that an agent, employee, or business entity receives for performing a service or transacting business.

Commitment
A commitment is a pledge or agreement to assume a financial obligation on a future date.

Common Stock
In the U.S., shareholders who have common stock do not have voting rights in annual shareholders meetings.

Compound Interest
This is interest added to the principal amount (deposit amount or loan amount) that also earns interest.

Compounding
Financially speaking, compounding means adding to (like referring to interest) a financial disbursement.

Consignee
A consignee is the recipient of an item of which he/she holds for sale. Consignees do not own the items they receive for sale.

Consignor
A consignor is an individual who sends an item to a consignee (see previous) for sale. Consignors retain ownership of items consigned.

Consolidated Financial Statements
These statements usually state interest earned, dividends earned and the value of stocks sold.

Construction Loan Note
A construction loan note is a short-term obligation relating to disbursing money to fund a construction project.

Contingent Beneficiary
A contingent beneficiary receives the monetary benefits of an insurance policy if the main beneficiary dies.

Controlling Interest
Usually referring to shareholders, these are individuals who have more stock, or their stock is more valuable, than the other shareholders. Therefore, they can control the sale of a particular company’s stock.

Convertible Term Insurance
If an individual has term life insurance that expires after a stipulated amount of time, he/she can “convert” it to whole insurance, which lasts for the insurer’s life.

Corporate Bond
A corporate bond is a binding obligation that a corporation holds which matures in at least one year.

Corporate Record Book
Such a book can be any book in which a corporation records its financial transactions.

Corporation
A corporation is a business entity that is authorized to act as a single entity and recognized in law.

Correction
A correction can be the written accurate adjustment to an inaccurate entry in a journal or balance.

Cosigner
A cosigner assumes the debt (promises to pay) of an individual in the event that the debtor cannot or will not pay the debt.

Covenant not to Compete
A covenant is a formal binding agreement, so a Covenant not to Compete means that a business entity agrees not to take away earnings (relating to selling the same goods) from another business entity.

Coverdell Education Savings Account (Coverdell ESA)
Coverdell Education Savings Accounts are certain accounts that may get additional taxes levied on them if the owners of such accounts do not follow the rules.

Credit (1)
A credit column is the right side of a balance sheet.

Credit (2)
A credit is a refund of the purchase amount to a consumer’s debit card or credit card.

Credit Bureau
A credit bureau calculates and reports an individual’s or business entity’s credit rating.

Credit History
This report lists the times that an individual or business entity has applied for, received, and/or has been rejected for credit.

Credit Line
This is the total monetary amount that a credit card company will allow a credit card holder to use as credit.

Credit Note
Such a note is a memo that a seller issues to a buyer. This usually relates to the same amount or a lower amount on an invoice.

Credit Rating
Credit bureaus issue credit ratings, which are evaluations of credit risk for individuals and business entities.

Credits
Credits can be several transactions that refund purchase amounts to an individual’s or business entity’s credit card.

Cumulative Voting
Cumulative voting is a fairer and more proportional voting method among in corporations.

Current Asset
A current asset is an asset that can easily be converted to cash.

Current Liability
A current liability is a liability that must be paid with cash.

Debit
An accounting entry showing the amount owed of an account.

Debit Card
Use of a debit card authorizes the seller to immediately take purchase amounts from the cardholder’s account.

Debt
A debt is a financial obligation that must be paid.

Debt-to-Equity Ratio
This ratio indicates the proportion of a shareholder’s equity and shareholder’s debt when financing a business entity’s assets.

Decreasing Term Insurance
Decreasing term life insurance states that death benefits will decrease (monthly or annually) during the policy’s term.

Deed
A deed is a signed document showing the legal transfer of property ownership.

Deferred Annuity
The individual or annuity payer has delayed or ceased payment of annuities until the time of agreement of certain conditions.

Deficit
A deficit shows more expenditures than revenue.

Defined Benefit Plan
Employers provide such a plan to their employees. The monetary benefits upon retirement are predetermined.

Defined Contribution Plan
Employers or employees provide such a plan. Employees or employers make regular, monetary contributions to this plan.

Deflation
Deflation is the economic condition in which the amount of cash money or credit results in the general decline of prices.

Demand Loan
This is a loan type in which the lender “demands” immediate repayment.

Dependent
For income tax purposes, this is an individual who requires substantial financial and/or living arrangement assistance from a taxpayer.

Depletion
When referring to companies in the mining business, this is the total mining of ores in which no more is available.

Deposit
This is the adding of cash to a checking account or savings account.

Depreciation
This is the financial attempt to recover the cost of an asset over time as it loses its value.

Derivative
This is a contract or security that gets its value from an underlying asset.

Direct Cost
Pertaining to manufacturing costs, a direct cost can be easily and accurately defined.

Direct Deposit
A direct deposit is an electronic deposit into an account holder’s checking, savings or retirement account. A direct deposit requires the authorization of the account holder.

Direct Rollover
A direct rollover is usually electronic and is a deposit from an account holder’s retirement plan to another retirement plan that the account holder has.

Direct Tax
A direct tax is a tax that an individual or business entity pays that does not pertain to a transaction.

Directors
Directors are individuals who supervise a business entity’s planning.

Disability-Income Insurance
This is income that a disabled individual receives as a result of company-related accident or illness. Such an individual must have been enrolled in the particular company’s disability-income insurance plan.

Discount Broker
A discount broker charges clients lower-than-normal fees for buying and selling stocks without giving his/her clients financial advice.

Disposable Income
Relating to an individual’s or business entity’s income, disposable income is the income available after the payment of taxes and the income required for living expenses.

Dissolution
This is the condition whereby a business entity or individual terminates its business operations.

Diversification
This is the increase of items that a business entity produces and/or makes available for purchasing.

Dividend
A dividend is a monetary interest disbursement from a mutual fund.

Dollar Cost Averaging
Dollar cost averaging reduces the volatility when making large purchases of financial assets.

Domestic Corporation
This is a corporation that practices business in its home country.

Double Taxation
This occurs when two jurisdictions (for example, two states) levy taxes on the same income or on the same item.

Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA)
The Dow Jones Industrial Average is a stock market average of 30 large publicly traded companies that are trading during a certain period of time.

Early Withdrawal
An early withdrawal occurs when a retirement account holder withdraws money from his/her retirement account before he/she has reached retirement age.

Earned Income
This is income that a worker (blue collar or white collar) earns. Earned income does not include prize money or the gain from the sale of capital assets.

Earned Income Credit
This is a credit or amount of tax reduction that a taxpayer may qualify for if he/she has earned income and meets certain other qualifications.

Electronic Banking
The form of banking allows cash and savings account holders to electronically deposit and electronically withdraw money.

Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce)
Electronic commerce relates to trading, buying and selling commodities via the Internet or by other electronic methods.

Electronic Filing (IRS e-file)
This is an option that U.S. taxpayers have to file their income taxes. Electronic filing does not require that the taxpayer mail his/her, or in the case of a business entity, its paper tax return to the IRS because the tax preparer’s computer encodes the tax return and sends it electronically.

Electronic Funds Transfer System (EFTS)
This is a system that transfers money from one bank account to another. Such a transfer can go electronically from one bank to another without human assistance.

Employment Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA)
The Employment Retirement Security Act became a law in 1974; and this act established the minimum requirements that business entities must adhere to when providing pension plans and employee benefit plans.

Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP)
Some companies and corporations allow their employees to have ownership of a company or corporation by providing them with stock. Although such employees do not initially pay for such stock, this stock is related to the work such employees have done.

Endowment
The action of giving or bequeathing an item, securities or anything of value to another person or organization.

Engagement Letter
When a legal relationship exists between a professional firm and its clients, an engagement letter was likely first created and distributed to define compensation terms and/or compensation methods.

Enrolled Agent
An enrolled agent is a person with federal authority who represents taxpayers if they are called in for auditing of their tax returns.

Equity
If an owner has equity in a business entity, he/she has an ownership claim and his/her interest in such a business entity is at risk.

Equity Loan
This is a loan that uses real estate as collateral.

Escrow
Escrow means that a third party holds money, property or a deed until the intended recipient fulfills a certain condition.

Estate
An estate is the assets and liabilities that person leaves when he/she dies.

Estate Planning
This planning can be part of a person’s will in which he/she details the administration of his/her estate upon his/her death.

Estate Taxes
On U.S. Income Tax Form Schedule A, taxpayers can deduct real estate taxes related to personal property. U.S. taxpayers can deduct business-related, real estate taxes on Schedule C.

Excess Compensation
This compensation type refers to payments from an employer to an employee to determine the employee’s retirement allowance.

Excise Tax
Excise taxes are paid when purchases of a certain good are included in the overall price of product. An example of an excise tax is a tax on gasoline that is include in the price per gallon. In such a case the business entity cannot deduct this excise tax.

Executor
An executor is a person and/or firm named in an individual’s will who will have primary responsibility for distributing the assets of the deceased’s estate.

Exempt (from tax liability)
This means that a person on business entity does not need to pay taxes.

Exempt (from withholding)
This means that an individual who earns wages or a salary qualifies not to have part of his/her wages withheld to pay for certain taxes.

Expenditure
This is outlay that a business entity charges against revenue for a specific period.

External Auditor
Such an auditor is not an employee of the business entity of which he/she verifies accounting records.

F.O.B.
The is the abbreviation for free on board; and it specifies the point at which a seller transfers ownership of goods to a buyer.

FICA (Federal Insurance Contributions Act)
This act put into law the requirement that employers must withhold a certain percentage of their employees’ wages to fund Social Security and Medicare.

Form 1040EZ
This is a shorter form than the 1040 Form that a U.S. taxpayer may be qualified to use when filing his or her income taxes.

Form W-2
This is the form that an employee gives to his/her employer to authorize withholding of part of income for tax purposes.

Form W-4 (Employee’s withholding allowance certificate)
This is the form that declares an employee is exempt from withholding/taxes.

Fair Market Value
When filing U.S. income taxes, this value is used to determine the price that at which a willing buyer would accept property ownership from a willing seller.

Family Limited Partnership (FLP)
Partners (general or limited) use these to transfer wealth from one generation to another generation.

Federal Reserve System (The Fed)
This is the central banking system for the United States.

Federal Tax Identification Number
This number is a nine-digit number that the IRS assigns to business entities that operate in the U.S. FTINs are on all 1099 forms, most, if not all, W2-G forms, and many other forms.

Fiduciary
A fiduciary is a person of business entity that holds money or property in trust.

File a Return
This means to send income tax forms to the U.S. Internal Revenue Service.

Filing Status
For filing U.S. income tax forms, the taxpayer’s filing status can be one of these: single, married filing jointly, married filing separately, head of household or qualifying widow/widower with dependent child.

Financial Aid
This type of financial assistance often refers to money given to individuals to complete their post-secondary school education.

Financial Statements
These statements are a business entity’s formal records summarizing financial activities.

First-to-Die Life Insurance
This is an insurance policy for two individuals. When one of the policyholders die, the surviving policyholder receives the death benefit of the life insurance policy.

Fiscal Year
This is an accounting period that lasts 12 months but start and end date can be different for each organization.

Fixed Annuity
This is an insurance contract in which an insurance company makes regular, specified, and unchanging (same amount) payments to the annuitant until death or the contract’s cancellation.

Fixed Assets
These assets cannot easily be converted into cash; an office building and equipment are examples.

Fixed Rate
This can refer to the unchanging, percentage amount of interest amount than business entity pays on a loan.

Fixed Rate Mortgage
A fixed rate mortgage states that the interest on the loan remains the same during the loan’s entire term.

Floating Debt
This occurs when a business entity continually refinances a short-term debt.

Flood Insurance
This is insurance to help repair the damage to real estate damaged by a flood, or to help pay for possessions damaged by flood.

For Sale by Owner (FSBO)
The owner of certain real estate property chooses to sell such property themselves instead of using a real estate agency.

Foreclosure
This is a legal proceeding whereby the lender attempts to force sale of real estate to recover enough money to pay the loan balance.

Foreign Corporation
A foreign corporation registers to do business in a jurisdiction or state different than the jurisdiction or state of original incorporation.

Forfeitures
These are the losses of money or property because legal obligations were not met/paid.

Formal Tax Legislation Process
This is a process whereby a tax rule or tax change may become law in the United States.

Franchise
This is a business entity’s license and permission for another business entity to use its logo, trademark, and other intangible assets.

Franchise Tax
This is a tax that a municipality, state or the federal government levies on a franchise.

Fringe Benefits
Fringe benefits are benefits that an employer gives to an employee that do not affect the employee’s wages.

Front-End Load
This is a fee charged to an investor with the first payment to recover administrative expenses and transaction costs.

Futures
On the stock exchange, commodity futures are bought or sold with the expectation of future gain or loss.

GAAP
This is an acronym for generally accepted accounting principles.

GAAS
This is an acronym for generally accepted auditing standards.

General Journal
A general journal has the date that a transaction occurred, the amount of increase or decrease, and a brief description of the transaction.

General Ledger
A general ledger is a collection of individual ledger accounts along with their balances.

General Partner
A general partner of a partnership is responsible for the business entity’s actions and is personally liable for the business entity’s debts and obligations.

Gift
A gift is an item or money freely given without the expectation of compensation in the form of money or property.

Gift Tax
A gift tax is nondeductible on federal income tax forms.

Golden Boot
This occurs when a business entity pays an employee a large severance package (usually in the form of money) to resign.

Golden Handcuffs
This occurs when a business entity pays an employee who is earning a large salary an additional financial and/or benefits incentive to remain as an employee of the business entity.

Golden Parachute
This is a large payment to a business entity’s executive when such an executive is dismissed as a result of a merger or takeover.

Goodwill
This is an intangible asset representing a business entity’s favorable reputation with its consumers and/or suppliers.

Government Bond
In the United States, the Treasury Department issues a government bond with the promise that it will make periodic interest payments and will repay the face value on its maturity date.

Grace Period
In the case of a loan, this is the amount of time after the loan’s balance becomes due in which the lender will not charge penalties if the borrower pays the balance.

Gross Estate
Gross estate is an estate’s value before considering liabilities.

Gross Income
For a taxpayer filing a U.S. Individual Income Tax Return, gross income is the total income on Form 1040, line 22.

Gross Monthly Income
This is the monthly amount of income that an individual or business entity receives before considering liabilities.

Group Life Insurance
This is a life insurance policy in which a group of people are insured.

Guardian
A guardian is an individual who cares for a person or who cares for the property belonging to another individual.

Health Savings Account (HSA)
This is a specific savings account created that contains money designated to pay for medical expenses. This account type cannot be a medical or dental expense deduction on Schedule A.

Highly Compensated Employee (HCE)
According to the IRS, this is an individual who is considered highly-compensated because he/she owns more than 5% of a business entity’s interest.

Housing Ratio
Lenders use this ratio to compare a borrower’s housing expenses to a borrower’s gross income.

Income
On U.S. Individual Tax Returns, all of these are income: wages, salaries, tips, taxable interest, tax-exempt interest, ordinary dividends, qualified dividends, taxable refunds, alimony received, business income, capital gains, other gains, IRA distributions, pensions and annuities, income from real estate, partnerships, S corporations and trusts, royalties, farm income, unemployment compensation, social security benefits, and other income such as certain jury duty pay and prizes.

Income Statement
A business entity’s income statement shows revenues, expenses, net operating profit and net income available to stockholders.

Income Tax
This is a federal tax on income that an individual or business entity receives.

Incorporated (Inc.)
This means that a company has formed a legal corporation.

Incorporator
This is the individual who has the authority to establish a corporation, and who files the Articles of Incorporation with a specific state.

Indemnify
This means to secure an individual or business entity against loss or damage, or to secure an individual or business entity against legal responsibility for their actions.

Index
In the world of the stock market, an index is a list of companies that publicly trade and their respective stock prices.

Indirect Tax
An example of an indirect tax is a sales tax, value added tax or goods and services tax. Retail stores collect indirect taxes from consumers.

Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs)
These are retirement accounts that an individual contributes money to for their eventual retirement.

Inflation
Inflation occurs when prices rise because of an increase in the volume of money and credit in relation to goods and services.

Informal Tax Legislation Process
This is a process in which U.S. citizens attempt to influence tax legislators by holding meetings, signing petitions and contributing to advocacy groups.

Initial Public Offering (IPO)
An initial public offering occurs when investors purchase a company’s shares, and then, for the first time, sells them to the public.

Insolvency
Insolvency occurs when a business entity cannot pay its debts when due.

Installment
This is commonly an agreement between a purchaser and a seller for the purchaser to pay for the item’s cost over a period of time instead of all at once.

Insufficient Funds
This typically occurs when a financial institution declares that an account holder lacks enough money to pay a check that he/she wrote.

Insurability
This is the determination as to whether a certain loss type can be insured, or whether an individual or business entity can be insured.

Insurable Interest
If a person or business entity benefits financially by the continuous existence of an insured item that is not damaged or impaired, then this particular individual or business entity has insurable interest for the insured item.

Insured
This is the state and/or condition of a person or business entity when it has insurance.

Intangible Asset
This is an asset that one cannot touch when such assets are in their operative states like goodwill, copyrights, patents, etc.

Integrated Plan
In the business world, an integrated plan is a plan participation of all stockholders and the respective departments.

Intellectual Capital
A business entity’s intellectual capital is an intangible asset referring to the value of its employees.

Interest (1)
This is an additional charge (usually a percentage) on the amount of money lent.

Interest (2)
When invested capital earns profit, such profit is interest.

Interest Income
When referring to savings accounts and mutual funds accounts this is income that account holders receive if they keep money in such accounts for a specified amount of time.

Interest Rate
The interest rate can refer to the percentage amount, based on the amount borrowed, that a lender will charge over a specified time period.

Internal Auditor
This is an employee of the company or corporation of which he/she examines and verifies accounts.

Internal Control
In accounting and auditing, this is the process whereby a business entity assures itself that it will achieve its objectives.

Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
This is the interest rate at which the net present values from a business entity’s cash flows relating to a project or investment equal zero.

Inventory
The is a collection of unsold merchandise that a business entity may have in its warehouse or store.

Investment
If an individual or business entity makes an investment, he/she/it outlays money to earn money from the invested property.

Investment Objective
This occurs when an investor has a financial goal.

Invoice
This is an itemized statement listing items sold or services rendered; and this statement typically requests payment for the goods sold and/or services rendered.

Irrevocable Trust
This type of trust means that it can only be changed or cancelled with the beneficiary’s permission.

Joint Products
Joint products occur when manufacturers produce different products from the same manufacturing process at the same time.

Joint Tenancy
Type of shared, property ownership in which each owner has undivided interest in a property.

Journal
In accounting, a journal is an accounting record of business transactions that includes the date on which the transaction occurred, and the amount and type of transaction.

Journal Entry
This is an entry in a journal that includes the date of occurrence, type of transaction and a brief description of the transaction.

Keogh Accounts
Keogh accounts are accounts that self-employed individuals can set up.

Keogh Plan
A Keogh Plan is a qualified retirement plan from which a distribution is fully taxable.

Key Employee
A key employee has most ownership and/or most decision-making role for a business entity.

Key Person Insurance
If a business entity purchases a life insurance policy on a key employee’s life, it is key person insurance.

Lapsed Policy
The declaration of a lapsed policy occurs when an insurance company cancels a policy because of nonpayment of premiums on due dates or nonpayment of premiums during grace periods.

Lease
This is a contract for renting real estate or other property allowing an individual or business entity to live in or conduct business in a piece of real estate.

Lease-Purchase Agreement
This is a contract given to individuals who intend to lease property so that they may have the option to purchase such property during the lease’s term.

Leaseback (Sale and Leaseback)
This is a financial transaction in which an individual or business entity sells an asset, and then leases it back for a long-term period.

Leasehold Improvements
These are improvements (not repairs) on leased property that increase the value of such leased property.

Ledger
A ledger is an accounting book containing an account which has debits and credits.

Letter of Credit
A bank issues a letter of credit guaranteeing that a seller will receive a payment as long as the seller follows certain, delivery conditions.

Level Premium Term Insurance
In a term insurance policy, premiums remain level (the same amount) throughout the policy’s term.

Liability
Relating to business entities, a liability is a debt.

Life Annuity
This is an annuity that has a predetermined payout amount until the annuitant’s death.

Life Cycle
When referring to a business entity, this is the period between such an entity opens to conduct business, and when it ceases to conduct business.

Life Expectancy
Insurance companies make this estimate to determine the average life span of an individual.

Life Insurance
This is insurance that a company provides to an individual in which such a company will pay monetary compensation to the insurer’s beneficiary when he/she dies.

Lifetime Learning Credit
When filing a U.S. Individual Tax Return, a taxpayer may be eligible to claim this education credit if they have a filing status that is other than Married Filing Separately, and if they meet other educational qualifications.

Limited (LTD.)
This refers to a company in which its members and/or subscribers are limited to what they have invested or guaranteed to the company.

Limited Liability Company
In a limited liability company, the owners have limited personal liability for the company’s debts.

Limited Liability Corporation (LLC)
A limited liability has the same personal liability limits on its owners for the corporation’s debts that a company has.

Limited Partnership
In a limited partnership, the limited partner is usually not responsible for the partnership’s debts that exceed his/her amount of capital investment.

Liquid Asset
This is cash or property that can easily be sold for cash.

Liquid Assets
This is several types of property, life insurance policies and securities that a business entity can easily convert to cash.

Liquidation
This is the process that a business entity takes to convert its assets to cash in order to pay debtors and/or creditors.

Liquidation Value
This is an assets likely value when it has insufficient time to be sold on the open market.

Liquidity
Liquidity is the degree to which an asset can be bought quickly or sold quickly without affecting its value.

Liquidity Ratio
This is a ratio used to determine if a business entity can pay its short-term debt obligations.

Living Trust
This is an arrangement whereby a trustee holds legal title to the property of another person who is the beneficiary.

Living Will
Such a will gives directions to physicians regarding their wishes for medical care, often at the end of life.

Local Tax
Municipalities and counties impose this tax on business entities.

Locking In
This can refer to declaring an unchanging percentage with regard to a discount on an item for sale.

Long-Term Care Insurance
This type of insurance is generally similar to accident and health insurance. Provisions are made and expenses are paid for chronically-ill individuals; such a policy will not reimburse expenses that Medicare would reimburse.

Loss
A loss could refer to a piece of real estate that is completely destroyed, and from which the owner receives no compensation for its loss. A loss could also refer to the income state of a sole proprietorship when it files its taxes wherein its expenses exceeded its income.

Management Accounting
Mangers use accounting information to learn more about income, expenses and equity before deciding matters within their business organizations.

Management Buyout
This occurs when a business entity’s existing managers acquire ownership of a large part of the business entity from the parent company or from private owners.

Management Fee
Regarding investments, this is the periodic fee paid by an investment fund to the fund’s, investment advisor.

Manager
This can be an individual who directs the actions of a business entity’s blue-collar and white-collar workers.

Mandatory Employee Contribution
This can be a contribution that an employee must make to a retirement plan, such as in the case that an employee has a 403b plan.

Market Risk
Referring to the stock market, this is risk of loss that could occur if stock prices decline.

Market Timing
This is a strategy referring to the stock market whereby investors attempt to predict future market prices.

Market Value
This is the price at which an asset would trade in a competitive auction.

Materiality
Materiality is an accounting and auditing concept referring to the significance of an amount transaction or discrepancy.

Maturity
When referring to a savings bond this is the time when the owner of such a bond can redeem it for the bond’s face value plus interest.

Medicaid
This is a program of federal medical assistance that wage earners contribute to by employers withholding a certain amount of income from their pay.

Medicare
Medicare includes parts A, B and D, of which some of these plans will pay for voluntary prescription drugs, supplemental medical insurance and in-patient care in a qualified medical facility, etc.

Medicare Part D
In this Medicare Plan an individual who enrolled can deduct medical expense premiums on their U.S. Income Tax Returns.

Member
A member can be an inorganic section of a business entity.

Merger
A merger occurs when a business entity absorbs another business entity to form a new business entity.

Minimum Participation Requirements
Regarding retirement plans that employers contribute to; this can be the minimum amount that they must contribute.

Minority Interest
Minority interest is the same as non-controlling interest.

Minutes
This is the official record of a business entity’s meeting.

Money Market
When money becomes commodities, this market becomes a part of financial markets as it relates to short-term borrowing, short-term lending, short-term buying and short-term selling.

Monthly Housing Expenses
These are monthly expenses that an individual may have if he/she has a mortgage or leases an apartment or home.

Mortality Table
This is a table that displays, according to each age, the probability that an individual will die before his/her next birthday.

Municipal Bond
Cities, towns and/or counties issue this bond.

Name Reservation
Relating to business entities, such an entity may reserve a name through its state of incorporation.

National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations (NASDAQ)
U.S.-based stock exchange which is the second largest in the world.

Net Income
This is the income amount after the consideration and/or payment of liabilities.

Net Worth
This is an individual’s or business entity’s total assets minus its total outside liabilities.

New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)
The American stock exchange which is the largest stock exchange in the World.

No-Par-Value Stock
Investors determine the price they will pay for no-par-value stock.

Noncontributory Retirement Plan
This is a pension plan to which an employer contributes money that does not require contributions from its employees.

Nonforfeitable Benefit
This is a benefit given to employees which employers cannot take away.

Nonqualified Plan
A key executive and a certain employee may have a nonqualified retirement plan to meet his/her specialized retirement needs. Such a plan is not covered by ERISA guidelines.

Not-For-Profit Corporation
A non for profit corporation is one formed for another purpose other than operating a profit-seeking business. A not for profit corporation is a type of non-profit organization.

Notary Public
This is a public official who attests and/or certifies certain documents like affidavits, depositions, etc.

Note Payable (Promissory Note)
A note payable requires that the business entity’s officers sign a formal loan before the lender will loan money.

Note Receivable
Such a note is an asset for a business entity; this note requires full payment over a period that is 30 days or longer.

Offering Price
This is the price at which new issues of stock are made available to the public for purchasing.

Officers
These are a business entity’s employees and/or executives who have authority to sign certain specified documents and who have authority to perform certain specified actions.

Old-Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance (OASDI)
This is the official name for Social Security Insurance in the United States.

Operating Agreement
A limited liability company may have an operating agreement that governs its members’ financial and managerial rights.

Option
When referring to stock, this privilege sold from one individual to another gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation to buy or sell such stock at the agreement price within a certain specified time period.

Options
These can be several privileges sold among individuals relating to choosing to buy or sell stock at agreed upon prices within specified, time periods.

Ordinary income
An example of ordinary income from the IRS definition is a paycheck that an employee receives periodically.

Organizational Meeting
This is the first meeting that a business entity has after it is officially formed.

Over-the-Counter (OTC)
Referring to the stock market, over-the-counter means that no one supervises the trading between two parties.

Overhead
Overhead is an unidentified operating expense.

Owner’s Equity
This is the risk interest that an owner has in a business.

PITI
Referring to a mortgage, this acronym pertains the total of monthly principal, interest, taxes and insurance.

Paid-in Capital Requirements
Investors pay this capital amount during stock (common and preferred) issuances.

Paid-Up Additions
Paid-Up additions are insurance policy riders that allow the insured to quickly accumulate a policy’s cash value.

Par Value
This is a stock’s value. A corporate charter determines this value.

Par-Value
For a bond, this is the full amount of its face value.

Parent Company
A parent company has enough voting stock in another company so that it can influence or elect is board of directors.

Partnership
A proprietorship, which is a business that a single individual owns, will join with another proprietorship to combine their resources in order to have a better chance of success.

Pass-Through Taxation
This type of taxation means that taxes get passed to the business owners’ tax returns instead of being levied on the businesses.

Past Due
This can occur if an insured does not pay his premium on an agreed upon date.

Patent
This is an intangible asset claiming ownership of an invention and/or process.

Payable
This can refer to an asset like accounts payable which means that customers owe a company payments through installment plans.

Payroll
This is a listing of employees who have earned money by working for a business entity.

Payroll Taxes
In the U.S., these are taxes that employers must withhold from employees’ wages.

Pension
This is a qualification to receive income when an individual retires.

Permanent Life Insurance
This refers to a life insurance plan that does not expire and combines a death benefit with savings.

Personal Income Tax
This is the tax on an individual’s personal income.

Plan Administrator
This individual manages the common regular affairs and decisions associated with a group pension plan.

Plan Sponsor
A plan sponsor is an individual or company that sets up a healthcare or retirement plan.

Policy
Referring to insurance, this is a contract between the insurer and the insured.

Policy Dividend
A company decides whether it will pay its profits to an employee as a dividend or retain such profits as earnings.

Policy Exclusion
An insurance policy will not cover the loss or damage for a certain property or certain item.

Policy Loan
This occurs when an insurance company uses as collateral the cash value of an individual’s life insurance policy.

Policy Reserves
This refers to the pro rata of the total reserve for many policies.

Policy Rider
This is an addition to an insurance policy that provides additional benefits, but also requires that the insured pay an additional price.

Policyholder
This is the insured (individual or group) named in an insurance policy.

Portability
Referring to health insurance and retirement benefits, a benefit an employee can keep when switching employers and/or retiring.

Portfolio
These are all of the investments that a business entity has.

Posting
This is an entry transfer from a book of original entry to the proper account in a ledger.

Power of Attorney
This is the legal authorization that an individual gives to another to manage financial affairs in his or her stead.

Preemptive Rights
These are the rights of current shareholders to keep the value of their fractional by buying a proportional amount of shares (common stock only) on a future date.

Preferred Stock
This stock type is more valuable than common stock.

Premature or Early Distributions
This occurs when an individual withdraws money from his/her retirement account before he/she has reached the eligible retirement age.

Premium
This is an amount that an insured individual pays to an insurance company to keep an insurance policy active.

Premium Loan
This occurs when an insurance company gives a loan to the policyholder so that he/she can pay a due premium. The policy’s cash value is the loan’s security.

Prepaid
This means that an individual or business entity paid a bill or expense before its due date.

Prepayment
This is the actual act of paying a bill or expense before its due date.

Prepayment Penalty
Lenders for mortgage contracts may include this penalty to reduce the loss of income when there is a risk that the lender will refinance.

Present Value
On the date that an item is valued, this is the expected income if sold.

Price/Earnings Ratio (P/E)
This is a ratio used to value a company that is based upon its stock price in relation to its earnings per share.

Primary Beneficiary
If an insurance policy lists several beneficiaries, this is the individual who will be first to receive death benefits.

Prime Rate
This refers to the interest rate that commercial banks charge their customers who have the best credit.

Principal
This is an individual who has controlling authority or the leading position.

Private Letter Ruling
This is where the U.S. Internal Revenue Service responds to a taxpayer’s guidance request.

Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI)
Private insurance companies provide this mortgage insurance on conventional loans.

Professional Corporation
These are corporate business entities that have special consideration; notably, they can be attorneys, architects and other licensed professionals.

Profit
Simply defined, this the amount of income received that exceeds an item’s cost.

Profit and Loss Statement
This financial statement shows a business entity’s revenues and expenses for a specified period.

Profit-Sharing Plan
This is an incentive plan that a business entity may provide to its employees to directly or indirectly distribute some or all of the business entity’s profits.

Progressive Tax
This is a tax in which the tax rate (percentage) increases as the taxable amount increases.

Prohibited Transaction
Relating to Individual Retirement Accounts, the IRS deems any of these as a prohibited transaction: borrowing money from them, selling property to them, using them as security for loans, and using the money in them to buy property for personal use.

Property
This is a piece of real estate or an item or thing that an individual owns.

Property Tax
This is a monetary charge that a municipality, state and/or federal government levies on the ownership and/or use of property.

Proportional Tax
This is the opposite of a progressive tax; the tax rate is fixed.

Prospectus
For the benefit of potential buyers, this is a disclosure statement describing a business entity’s financial security.

Proxy
Referring to an individual who has common stock in a U.S. corporation, this individual can vote (proxy) in-person, by mail, phone or online.

Qualified Plan
A qualified plan has these qualities: business entities may deduct the taxes on contributions; participants do not need to pay taxes on contributions; creditors cannot take money from these plans; and earnings on contributions increase without being taxed.

Quorum
In a business meeting, a quorum is the minimum number of members needed to conduct the meeting’s business.

Quotation
Regarding a service, this is the amount that an individual or business entity estimates will be the cost for performing the service.

Rate of Return
This is the loss or gain that an investment has during a specified time period.

Rated Policy
This is an insurance policy in which the insured pays higher than normal premiums due to the insured’s risky occupation.

Ratio
This is a relationship, often percentage, between two or more amounts, sizes and/or quantities.

Real Estate Investment Trust Fund (REIT)
This is a fund that a company who owns and operates income-producing real estate has.

Recapitalization
This occurs when a corporation substantially changes its capital structure.

Receivable
A business entity makes a legally enforceable claim for payment from a client and/or customer.

Redemption
This is the noun associated with redeeming (removing an obligation) for payment like the redemption of a U.S. Savings Bond.

Refinancing
An individual who has a home mortgage may refinance (get a newer and lower interest rate) it.

Refund
A person who buys defective merchandise may get the money he/she paid for the merchandise returned (refund) from the seller if he/she returns the defective merchandise to the seller.

Registered Agent
This is the person designated to receive federal and state documents for a business entity.

Registered Office
This is a business entity’s official address.

Regressive Tax
The tax rate of regressive tax decreases as the taxable amount increases.

Required Minimum Distribution (RMD)
This is the minimum amount that retirees must receive from their traditional retirement, Simple IRAs and SEP plans by April 1 in the year after they reach 70½ years old.

Resolution
Referring to a business meeting, this is the formal expression of opinion or intention.

Retained Earnings
When a business entity has net income, it sometimes keeps (retains) these earnings instead of distributing this income to shareholders.

Revenue
This is the total income that a specific source produces.

Reverse Mortgage
This is a home loan usually secure over a property that enables the borrower to access the value of the property. The loads are typical marketed to older homeowners and normally do not require monthly mortgage payments.

Review Engagement
This occurs when a public accountant reviews a business entity’s financial information at the request of a client. Such a review consists of inquiries, analytical procedures and discussions.

Review Engagement Report
This is the formal findings from a public accountant after he/she conducts a review engagement.

Risk
In business, this is the chance for loss, usually for income loss.

Risk Tolerance
This is the extent of money that an investor is willing to risk on an investment.

Rollover
One example of a rollover is transferring funds from one retirement account to another retirement account without needing to pay taxes on those funds.

Roth IRA
Interest earned on the contributions in a Roth IRA, which is a specific type of retirement plan is usually not taxable.

Roth IRA Conversion
This is a rollover of contributions from a traditional IRA to a Roth IRA.

S Corporation
The IRS classifies an S Corporation as a corporation among whose shareholders share income and losses. This corporation type does not pay federal income taxes.

SIMPLE (Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees) Plan
This plan allows employers and employees to contribute to a traditional IRA, with employees matching some or all of the employee’s contribution.

Salary Reduction Plan
Employers sponsor this plan for their employees and put part of their employees’ wages directly into this plan. Such a reduction can be before or after the employees’ taxes.

Sales Taxes
These are taxes a seller charges to customers on the type of goods that customers purchase.

Savings Account
This is a type of bank account for an individual. Money in a savings account earns interest.

Schedule
A schedule is a special IRS form that U.S. taxpayers use when filing their taxes. These are some of the most common schedules: A, B, SE, C, D, E, F and R.

Section 162 (Executive Bonus)
This is a nonqualified plan to which an employer pays the premiums on a permanent life insurance policy that has an employee as the insured.

Secured Card
A secured card is a credit card that an individual who has a poor credit rating can qualify for if he/she deposits the credit limit amount with the particular credit card company.

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
This is an agency of the U.S. federal government that enforces security laws, proposes security rules and regulates the security industry.

Security
This is a financial asset that can be traded.

Security Deposit
An individual with a poor credit rating interested in obtaining a credit card deposits this amount with the credit card company and this amount is her/her credit limit.

Self-Directed IRA (SDA)
Some U.S. financial institutions provide this type of retirement account that allows alternative types of investments like limited partnerships, precious metals, etc.

Self-Employment Tax
On U.S. Income Tax Returns, this is a tax on individuals who are self-employed. The taxes go on Schedule SE.

Self-Select Pin
U.S. taxpayers choose a five-digit number to represent their signature when filing tax returns electronically.

Seller Financing
This is a loan that a seller of a property or business provides to the purchaser.

Settlement Costs
Concerning the purchase of a home, these are settlement costs: loan origination fee, appraisal fee, points, title search, insurance, survey, taxes, deed recording fee, credit report charge, etc.

Share
This is a single unit of stock.

Shareholder
This is an individual or organization that owns interest (stock) in a public or private corporation.

Simplified Employee Pension Plan (SEP)
Such a plan provides business owners with a simplified method for contributing to their employees’ retirements.

Situs
This is the place where something like property exists.

Small Business Association (SBA)
This is a U.S. government agency that assists entrepreneurs and individuals to establish small businesses.

Smart Card
This is a debit card and/or credit card that has a computer chip embedded in it.

Social Security
The U.S. government established this program in 1935 to include old-age and survivors’ insurance.

Social Security Tax
This is a mandatory tax that employers must withhold from their employees’ wages.

Sole Proprietorship
In this business type, only one person owns and operates it.

Split-Dollar Life Insurance
This is a type of life insurance policy that benefits employer and employee.

Spousal IRA
In this IRA a working spouse can contribute to the non-working spouse’s retirement savings.

Standard & Poor’s 500 Index (S&P 500)
This index lists the 500 best performing stocks.

Standard Deductions
These are amounts on Form 1040, line 40 that reduce the amount of income on which individuals are taxed if they do not choose to itemize their deductions.

State Taxes
These are taxes which individuals and business entities must pay to U.S. state governments.

Stated Capital
This is the amount of capital that a business entity must hold to pay dividends and other payouts.

Statement
An example of a financial statement is a Profit & Loss Statement.

Statement of Changes in Financial Position
This is one of the four main financial statements for a business entity. The others are the balance sheet, retained earnings statement and the income statement.

Statement of Earnings
This statement verifies the beginning and ending retained earnings for a business entity relating to a specified period.

Statement of Financial Position
This is a financial balances summary for a business entity.

Statement of Retained Earnings
This statement should show retained earnings for a beginning date, plus net income, minus dividends, and then the retained earnings for an ending date.

Stock
This is the equity stake of a business entity’s owners.

Stock Certificate
This is a legal document that certifies ownership of stock.

Stock Dividend
This is a payment from stock in the form of additional shares.

Stock Market
In this market, shares of publicly-held companies are traded.

Stock Option
This option gives the stock buyer the right not the obligation to buy or sell underlying assets on or before a specific date.

Stock Purchase Plan
In reference to a stock purchase plan for employees, such a plan gives employees the opportunity to buy its company’s stock at a discounted price.

Stock Split
This occurs when a corporation divides its existing shares into multiple shares.

Stock Transfer Book
This book records the transfer of stock from one individual or business entity to another individual or business entity.

Stockholder
Such an individual or business entity can have capital interest in another business entity.

Straight-Term Mortgage
This is a mortgage loan in which the borrower only pays interest during the loan term.

Subsidiary
Such a business entity is controlled by a larger related business entity.

Survivorship Life Insurance
In these life insurance policies, the insurance company pays death benefits when the second insured person dies.

Tangible Asset
A tangible asset has a physical form.

Tariff Duty
This is a tax on exported items.

Tax Avoidance
A business entity may use tax avoidance to legally avoid paying taxes on income.

Tax Credit
On U.S. income tax forms, any of these can be a tax credit: Alternative Motor Vehicle Credit, Child and Dependent Care Credit, Child Tax Credit, Earned Income Credit, The Lifetime Learning Credit, Credit for the Elderly or the Disabled, Foreign Tax Credit, Mortgage Interest Credit and Residential Energy Credit.

Tax Credits
On U.S. Individual Tax Returns, tax credits can be listed on lines 64a-71 of Form 1040.

Tax Deductions
These are amounts that may be subtracted to reduce taxable income.

Tax Evasion
This is the illegal avoidance to pay taxes.

Tax Exempt
This is an item or amount which does not need to have taxes paid upon it.

Tax Liability
This is money that a business entity owes to a municipal government, state government or to the federal government.

Tax Lien
This is a legal claim to satisfy a debt such as with the failure to pay property income taxes.

Tax Shelter
A business entity may use a tax shelter to reduce taxable income.

Tax Shift
If a business entity uses a tax shift, it eliminates or reduces taxes while keeping the same revenue amount.

Tax Withholdings
These are amounts (mandatory or otherwise) that employers withhold from their employees’ wages.

Tax-Exempt Bond
An example of a tax-exempt bond is a municipal bond.

Tax-Sheltered Annuity
A 403(b) retirement plan is a tax-sheltered annuity.

Taxable Income
This is the base income upon which states and the federal government imposes taxes.

Taxes
These are monetary charges that governments (municipal, state or federal) charge individuals or business entities for performing public services.

Tenants by the Entirety
This is when a married couple has equal undivided rights to a property.

Tenants in Common
If this informal method is on a title, it means that each owner owns a specific percentage of a property.

Term Certain
Referring to insurance, this means that an insurance policy guarantees a periodic payment at a specific amount for a fixed term.

Term Insurance
This insurance provides coverage at a fixed payment rate for a limited time.

Time Horizon
This is the time period in which a business entity might make and hold for an investment before it liquidates it.

Tips
These are monetary considerations given to individuals who perform services.

Title
This is the right or claim to property ownership.

Title Insurance
In the U.S., this is insurance that insures against financial loss because of defects in real estate property titles.

Title Search
This is a search to determine who has ownership (deed) to real estate property.

Total Disability
This means that an individual cannot work in his/her occupation, or any occupation, because he/she has a specific condition, sickness or injury.

Total Return
Referring to an investments portfolio, a total return considers the capital appreciation and the income received.

Transaction Fee
An example of a transaction fee is the fee a broker would charge to purchase stock for an investor.

Transaction Taxes
These taxes refer to taxes on brokered dealings between foreign governments.

Treasuries
These are U.S. government obligations which our government backs with its full faith and credit.

Treasury Bill
The U.S. government issues this short-term promissory note to regulate the money supply.

Treasury Shares
A business entity’s treasury shares pay no dividends and have no voting rights.

Trial Balance
This is the next-to-final verification of financial transactions before accountants and book-keepers post such transactions in ledgers.

Triple Net Lease
In this lease type, the lessee is also a tenant who is responsible for all costs relating to the leased property.

Trust
This is confidence that a person places in a person or organization when it hands over his/her property for holding.

Trust Fund
Cash, stocks, bond and other property types can be in a trust fund.

Trustee
This is an individual or board member who can control or administer property held in trust.

Ultra vires
This is a legal term in Latin meaning “beyond the powers.”

Unanimous Written Consent
Referring to a proposal in a board of directors meeting, all present must give written assent for the proposal to be implemented.

Underwriting
Referring to insurance, this means to sign, accept liability, and guarantee payment if loss or damage occurs for the insured.

Unemployment
The state of not earning wages from a job.

Uniform Gift to Minors Act (UGMA)
Some U.S. states have this act which allows custodians to hold securities that would benefit minors when the donors have given up possession and control.

Universal Life Insurance
A type of life insurance that has a cash value.

Unsecured Debt
A debt type that has no collateral or has protection by a guarantor.

Valuation Day
The date on which an appraisal is made.

Variable Interest Rate
A credit card, bond and loan may have this rate in which the interest amount varies.

Variance
Relating to financial concerns, this is the spread between amounts as in several price amounts.

Vertical Equity
This equity type includes progressive taxation and proportional taxation.

Vesting
This can mean informing an employee that he/she will unconditionally receive a share or pension.

Volatility
This is the degree variation of a trading price series during a specific, time period that measures the standard deviation of returns.

Voluntary Compliance
This is an alternative for a business entity’s behavior with regard to state-imposed regulations.

Voluntary Employee Contribution
This can be when an employee gives money to a charity without expecting anything in return.

Volunteer Income Tax Assistance
This program offers free tax assistance to individuals who earn less than $53,000 per year, disabled persons, elderly persons, and individuals who have difficulty speaking English.

Waiver of Premium
This is a rider in an insurance policy that allows the insured to not pay any further premiums if he/she becomes seriously ill or disabled.

Walk-In Electronic Filing
When a U.S. taxpayer is able to electronically file his/her tax return after walking into a tax preparation company.

Whole Life Insurance
This insurance policy has a guarantee to remain in force for the insured’s entire life as long as premiums are paid.

Withholding (Pay-as-you-earn-taxation)
This type of tax payments allows individuals and business entities to pay their expected tax liabilities in installments.

Withholding Allowance
Employees claim this allowance on Form W-4 and give this form to their employers so that such employers can withhold earnings from their wages to pay estimated federal income taxes.

Working Capital
This represents a business entity’s ability to convert assets to cash.

Write-off
In accounting, this is the recognition of an asset’s, zero value.

Yield
Financially, this is the cash amount that a security owner receives in cash, percentagewise.

Yield to Maturity (YTM)
This could be a bond’s book yield or redemption yield assuming that the bond will be held until it matures.

Zero Coupon Bond
This is a bond that when purchased, the price was lower than its face value. The face value will be repaid when it matures.

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